PART I: Adverb Clauses
When she was in Miami, she visited many friends.
She visited many friends when she was in Miami.
When she was in Miami: is an adverb clause.
She visited many friends: Independent clause.
- > An adverb clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. It must be
connected to an independent clause.
- > When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause, a
comma is used to separate the clauses.
- > When the adverb clause follows, usually no comma is used.
Because she wanted to visit her friends, she went to Miami.
She went to Miami because she wanted to visit her friends.
Like when, because introduces an adverb clause.
The words used to introduce adverb clauses are
called subordinating conjunction.
After, before, when, while, as by the time (that), whenever, since,
until, as soon as, once, as so long as.
Cause and effect:
Because, since, now that, as so long as, inasmuch as,
so (that), in order that.
Even though, although, though, whereas, while.
If, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing (that),
Provided (that), in case (that), in the event (that).
2.Time relationships with adverb clauses.
After she (had) came, she turned on the radio.
After she comes, she will turn on the radio.
Before she came, she (had) turned on the radio.
Before she comes, she will turn on the radio.
- > The adverb clause contains a present tense while the
independent clause contains a future time.
When he came, she was turning on the radio.
When he came, she had already turned on the radio.
When he came, she turned on the radio.
When he was out, she turned on the radio.
When he comes tomorrow, she will turn on the radio.
While she was listening to the radio, he knocked at the door.
As she was listening to the radio, he knocked at the door.
As, while = during this time.
By the time he came, she had already listened the news.
By the time he comes, she will listen the news.
By the time = one event is completed before another event.
She listens to the radio whenever he comes.
Whenever = every time when
She stayed at home until he came.
Until = till = to that time and then no longer.
She hasn’t listened to the radio since he came.
Since = from that time to the present.
As soon as he knocks at the door, she will turn off the radio.
Once he knocks at the door, she will turn off the radio.
As soon as = once = when one event happens, another
Event happens soon afterwards.
He won’t come as long as she smokes.
He will never come so long as she doesn’t call him.
As long as = so long as = during all that time, from beginning to end.
3.Cause and effect relationships with adverb clauses.
Because he wanted to visit his friends, he went to Miami.
He went to Miami because he wanted to visit his friends.
Since she never heard about cloning, she decided to not speak about it.
Since = because
Now that he has a lot of money, he can afford a new computer.
Now that = because now. It is used for present and future situations.
As they graduated, they were looking for jobs.
As = because
As/so long as:
As long as he works for this company, he can’t learn anything.
As/so long as = because
Inasmuch as (very formal):
Inasmuch as anybody is responsible, the situation becomes worse and worse.
Inasmuch as = because
Part II: Other Ways of Showing Cause and Effect Relationships:
1. Such … that and so … that:
Such … that encloses a modified noun:
Such + adjective +noun + that
So … that encloses an adjective or adverb: